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Africa : study seeks to promote networking and good practices in infrastructure development
vendredi 21 septembre 2007
par adi

The African Development Bank has supported the preparation of more than 15 regional projects as part of its assistance in upgrading infrastructure in Africa, Dr. Ini Urua, NEPAD division manager at the African Development Bank, says in this interview in Tunis, in which he discusses the Medium to Long Term Strategic Framework for Infrastructure development in Africa (MLTSF). What is the MLTSF study and how was it conceived ?

This is the Medium to Long Term Strategic Framework for infrastructure development on the continent. It seeks to institute a coherent strategic framework to serve as the basis for defining, implementing and monitoring infrastructure development on the continent as well as establishing partnerships that can best promote economic integration and support the development of trade on the continent.

The development of infrastructure on the continent has often been piecemeal in nature, with little or no coordination among agencies that support the development of infrastructure thus leading to a situation of slow progress even when reasonable resources are being committed and tangible progress is being recorded.

In this regard, the MLTSF will institute a well coordinated response to the development of infrastructure on the continent including measures to mobilise local and foreign private sectors in the development of infrastructure on the continent.

The availability of adequate and functional infrastructure is key to accelerating the socio-economic development of any country or region. Africa, in general, lacks the basic infrastructure to facilitate its sustainable development and trade between its countries and with the external world.

Given the critical nature of infrastructure for ensuring competitiveness of any sub-region, Africa with 53 countries of which a large number are tiny in physical and economic terms, and a significant number are landlocked, with poor infrastructure, especially those that connect the countries of the continent and provide access to markets for land locked countries, is unable to compete effectively in the global market place as well as sustain its socio-economic development.

The infrastructure development program under NEPAD seeks to facilitate an accelerated development and delivery of regional and continental infrastructure to foster the integration of the countries of the continent, intra-Africa trade, and trade between Africa and the rest of the world.

The Medium to Long Term Strategic Framework for Infrastructure development is the second part of the two pronged strategy adopted by the African Union/NEPAD for infrastructure development.

This strategy consisted of the development and institution of a Short Term Action Plan (STAP) to kick-start the process that was to be complemented with a Medium to Long Term Strategy (MLTSF) for sustainable infrastructure development.

The STAP formed the foundation for a coherent and structured approach to the development of a regional infrastructure. It placed emphasis on projects and initiatives with a strong facilitation element in order to create an enabling environment for accelerated development and sustenance of infrastructure assets and, therefore, emphasised policy, regulatory, and institutional measures necessary to ensure the efficiency of existing and planned regional infrastructure assets.

Representatives of Regional Economic Communities including CEMAC, ECCAS, UMA, EAC, COMESA, SADC, IGAD, ECOWAS, UEMOA, CEN-SAD, the Economic Commission for Africa, NEPAD Secretariat, members of the Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (ICA), Basin Organisations (RBOs), Regional Sector Organisations (RSOs), and other bilateral and multilateral development partners and agencies have been invited to MLTSF workshops. Why is there so much interest from the southern, eastern, central and western regions of the continent in the first phase of the study ?

These organisations are embodiments of the wider African stakeholders in the development of infrastructure. The need for effective development of regional infrastructure in a well coordinated manner has been widely accepted. These organisations, as pillars of the integration agenda of the AU, are devoting their time and resources to facilitate the development of regional infrastructure on the continent, hence their interest and devotion to the study.

According to existing documents, the key objective of the study is to define a strategic framework for the continuous and effective development of infrastructure on the African continent based on coherent strategic goals and clear achievable targets. The framework will seek to foster networking and dissemination of good practices in infrastructure development among countries, Regional Economic Communities, sub-regional and continental sector organisations, and infrastructure development partners, as well as establish a common vision among all stakeholders on the development of Africa’s infrastructure, to support social and economic development and trade in the continent.

How feasible is this objective, given the complex political set-up in some countries, the incapacity for some countries to support funding of infrastructure projects and the imbalance in existing infrastructures among the regions ?

The objective is realisable. The MLTSF seeks to set the guidance and steps for achieving this objective. There has been demonstrated political will between countries to work together and drive the integration agenda of the continent. The perennial problem of country versus sub-region is beginning to fade away and the emergence of the global world is adding impetus for the integration of the various countries and economies. Furthermore, in developing the MLTSF, institutional and technical capacities in the various infrastructure sub-sectors have to be developed and sustained. The MLTSF will also elaborate on these issues and set a template to guide future activities.

Sector stakeholder workshops are addressing STAP issues and the infrastructure gaps related to the African continent. At the regional workshop in Addis Ababa in July 2007, experts reviewed the findings and recommendations of the first part of the MLTSF study to the four subject sectors (water, ICT, energy and transport). Discussions are also underway to identify measures to accelerate implementation of the STAP. For example, in the transport sector, it is recommended that more concrete action plans should be prepared for implementation of the Transport Sector flagship projects—road transport facilitation, Yamoussoukro decision-air transport liberalisation. What constraints do you foresee in the implementation ?

One of the biggest constraints is the commitment of countries to implement regional integration programmes and the regional integration agenda. Countries cannot give meaningful commitment if they are in conflict or are facing eminent internal or external conflict.

Sustained peace and security are pre-conditions for accelerated development. Over the past few years, excluding two or three hotspots, we have started to witness lasting peace and stability in most of the sub-regions of the continent, thanks to the concerted effort of our leaders to resolve some of these conflicts.

On the implementation of the NEPAD program on infrastructure development, we have noticed that where there has been strong support by countries, programs are implemented quickly and these programs always achieve their stated objectives.

A further constraint is the local capacity in countries and regions to support project development, implementation and maintenance of existing assets. Another important constraint is the availability of resources to do early-stage project development work.

Generally, most people do not fully appreciate the fact that for projects to be brought to a stage of financing and implementation, much ground work has to be done to prepare them.

Where the pre-conditions stated earlier are there, including strong commitment from countries, this preparatory stage can be accelerated. Given that early-stage project development is the most risky part of any project, most project development agencies are usually very cautious and generally shy away from committing funds for early-stage project development activities.

This situation becomes exacerbated for projects that involve more than one country – which by its nature has a level of complexity very different from an in-country project. For this reason, the African Development Bank with the support of Canada and Denmark established the NEPAD-Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility Special Fund (NEPAD-IPPF) to bridge this gap and provide the necessary risk capital for early-stage project development and packaging. However, there is a need for adequate funding of the NEPAD-IPPF to be able to properly fill in this gap.

On the specific programs highlighted, a key issue that needs to be addressed is the continued commitment of countries of a given region or sub-region to implement key actions emanating from the recommendations of the STAP.

The MLTSF workshops have been organised under the tutelage of the African Union and the NEPAD Initiative with support from the African Development Bank and the Nigeria Technical Cooperation Fund of the Government of Nigeria. Given the melange of political and development institutions in these activities, to what extent will final decisions be directed by political interests of the countries in which projects will be carried out ?

The MLTSF and other related activities are undertaken as part of the AU/NEPAD agenda for the integration of the continent. As such, the outputs of the study will be presented for endorsement by the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee (HSGIC) and subsequently by the African Union next year.

Once this process has been undertaken, I do not foresee complications arising from political interests. For example, with the development of the Short Term Action Plan (STAP), prior to moving into implementation, it was endorsed by the HSGIC and the AU. It formed the basis for soliciting increased partnership and support from all stakeholders after it was formally endorsed and approved by those policy organs.

Nonetheless, given that we live in a real and dynamic world, political interests of countries and sub-regions of the continent cannot be completely eclipsed. Often, they are important in informing the prioritisation of key actions to encourage and ensure broad and effective participation of all in the achievement of the goal of integration of the economies and countries of the continent.

NEPAD, which initiated the STAP and its follow up, the MLTSF, has been heavily criticised for not having a goal or results. Some development experts and even political leaders have publicly challenged NEPAD.

In a widely publicised interview, Senegalese President, Abdoulaye Wade, said the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), set up to commit African leaders to promote democracy and good governance in return for increased Western investment, trade and debt relief, had not delivered on its promise.

"Expenses adding up to hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent on trips, on hotels. But not a single classroom has been built, not a single health centre completed. NEPAD has not done what it was set up for", Wade said June 12, 2007, during an interview on Africable, a West African TV channel.

As Manager of the NEPAD Division of the African Development Bank, which the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee mandated to provide technical assistance and advisory services in support of the implementation of the AU/NEPAD initiative in infrastructure development, how to respond do you this challenge ?

The majority of Africans as well as our partners want to see accelerated socio-economic development. For this to happen, there is a need to ensure the availability of reliable, efficient, and sustainable economic and social infrastructure. In this respect, we are all anxious to see acceleration in the implementation of infrastructure projects and programs on the continent.

Given this level of interest, it is proper and useful for interested persons to be critical of the pace of implementation and delivery of projects. Further, it is healthy for all stakeholders to interrogate the different programs and probe various activities and initiatives being put in place to respond to the various challenges of driving the NEPAD agenda. Overall, this is a good thing and demonstrates the interest of all stakeholders on the NEPAD program and its relevance to the socio-economic development of the continent.

We welcome criticisms, especially those that come with alternative view points and ideas.

As you are well aware, the NEPAD agenda on infrastructure development is about regional infrastructure to bolster the integration of the continent, thus, it is not helpful to expect NEPAD to have country-specific interventions. This is what governments of the various countries of the continent are there for.

As I had highlighted earlier, regional infrastructure development, be it in electricity interconnection, telecommunications broadband systems and interconnections, transboundary water resource management, or in trans-border transport networks (road, rail, maritime, and air transport/aviation), is a very complex activity that transcends all phases of project development, from early-stage project development through achievement of financing, delivery of the infrastructure asset, putting in place the right institutional framework to management of the infrastructure asset, to highlight a few.

On the preparation of regional infrastructure projects, using the NEPAD-IPPF in conjunction with other facilities, the African Development Bank has supported the preparation of more than 15 regional projects.

Examples are the Benin-Togo Ghana electricity interconnection which has been financed and is entering the implementation stage, the Kenya-Uganda oil pipeline which has secured a strategic investor and has entered the physical implementation stage, the Zambia-Tanzania-Kenya electricity Inter-connection which is in the final stages of achieving financing for physical implementation, the East African Submarine Cable System (EASSy) project, which despite additional complexity of encompassing more than 20 countries is about to achieve financial closure.

Other projects whose preparation is supported by the NEPAD-IPPF include the Gambia River Basin Organisation (OMVG) power transmission project, Botswana-Zambia (Kazanlunga) bridge project , the Senegal-Gambia bridge, the Senegal-Mauritania (Rosso) Bridge, cross border electrification project in Central Africa, the Kenya-Ethiopia electricity inter-connection project, Ghana-Burkina Faso electricity inter-connection project, SATA telecommunications back-haul project, just to name a few.

We have in the pipeline more than 50 regional infrastructure projects that require funding for their preparation prior to being packaged for financing and implementation.

On the financing of physical projects, I am pleased to note that through the STAP, a significant number of regional infrastructure projects have been successfully brought to financial closure and entered the implementation stage. The African Development Bank has contributed significantly to this success.

Over the period 2002-2006, the ADB financed 33 projects/programs consisting of 18 physical projects, including one private sector project, 12 studies, and three capacity building project for a total Bank Group financing of more than one billion dollars, and mobilised about US$1.6 billion in co-financing of some of these projects.

A number of these projects are at an advanced stage of implementation and some have been completed. Examples of the success stories include the Mozambique-South Africa gas pipeline project which has been completed and entered into service, the Morocco–Algeria-Spain electricity interconnection project and the West Africa gas pipeline project.

Other development partners such as the World Bank, the European Union, France, BADEA and the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) have also financed STAP projects.

Between 2002-2006, the World Bank approved, in credit, equity and guarantees, a total of about US$1 billion for STAP projects. During that period, financing of regional infrastructure projects by the ADB and other developing partners stood at approximately US$3.6 billion representing about 45% of the original total estimated cost of the STAP.

Notwithstanding these, it is important to put into perspective the nature of infrastructure development. Infrastructure, no matter how small in nature cannot be put in place in a flash. Typically, one needs a gestation time of 3-5 years before seeing the actual results.

For regional communities, especially those involving more than two countries and where participating countries do not have the same level of commitment, the frame can be much larger. As such, I am optimistic that in the next few years, these projects which have achieved financing will begin to yield the right fruits for all to see.

You have served the African Development Bank for 10 years in different capacities. As an engineer by profession, how do you assess the Bank’s contribution to the development of infrastructure on the continent ?

The African Development Bank has always been at the forefront of infrastructure development on the continent both at the national and regional level. Given the limitations on its concessional financing window, the Bank has done well in supporting the design, development and implementation of key infrastructure projects.

Very often development institutions that support the development and delivery of infrastructure are usually faced with the issue of implementation capacity at the country level. This is sometimes as a result of the commitment of recipient countries to the project and sometimes due to acute shortage of local personnel. Incorporation of capacity building elements in project design is often used to ameliorate this.

Nevertheless, the commitment of countries and agencies to the active building and retention of technical capacity is important and should never be relegated in the hierarchy of priorities. With continued sound macro-economic management in our countries coupled with the sustenance of peace and security, I foresee in the long term a reversal of this capacity deficit and drain.

This interview was prepared and conducted by Emmanuel Ngwainmbi, NEPAD, Regional Integration and Trade Department, African Development Bank. Source : NEPAD, 21 septembre 2007

 

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  195. Calendar of events
    1er septembre 2007

  196. African Geopolitics in the 21st Century
    7 septembre 2007

  197. Regular TV slots for NEPAD
    7 septembre 2007

  198. Public Sector Innovation Awards in Africa
    7 septembre 2007

  199. Calendar of events
    11 septembre 2007

  200. Support for NEPAD at African Green Revolution Conference
    14 septembre 2007

  201. NEPAD welcomes Britain’s $20m contribution to new Africa fund
    14 septembre 2007

  202. NEPAD TV programme changes
    14 septembre 2007

  203. Calendar of events
    15 septembre 2007

  204. NEPAD Spatial Development Programme moves forward
    21 septembre 2007

  205. NEPAD reports “significant progress” in a briefing to diplomats and key stakeholders
    21 septembre 2007

  206. Africa : study seeks to promote networking and good practices in infrastructure development
    21 septembre 2007

  207. NEPAD Projects Conference to be held in South Africa
    21 septembre 2007

  208. Decisions on science and technology indicators
    21 septembre 2007

  209. NEPAD TV schedule on Africa channel
    21 septembre 2007

  210. Calendar of events
    25 septembre 2007

  211. WorldFish opens regional centre in Zambia
    28 septembre 2007

  212. Looking at Africa’s water needs 2008-2010
    28 septembre 2007

  213. NEPAD cities programme moves ahead
    28 septembre 2007

  214. Enhancing ownership and partnership
    28 septembre 2007

  215. NEPAD Calendar of events
    28 septembre 2007

  216. NEPAD - Mozambique : implementation,awareness and ownership
    5 octobre 2007

  217. The NEPAD e-Africa Commission
    5 octobre 2007

  218. Calendar of events - NEPAD Agenda
    5 octobre 2007

  219. Successful NEPAD Projects Conference identifies many opportunities
    12 octobre 2007

  220. South Africa spells out its role in NEPAD and a road map for the future
    12 octobre 2007

  221. NEPAD Calendar of events
    15 octobre 2007

  222. Key role of agriculture in reaching Millennium Development Goals
    19 octobre 2007

  223. NEPAD Calendar of events
    19 octobre 2007

  224. High-level meeting praises progress with implementation of CAADP and recommends steps for future action
    19 octobre 2007

  225. Ministers approve $2bn submarine cable to connect Africa – and call for speedy implementation
    19 octobre 2007

  226. Mayor supports Cities programme to make NEPAD happen at the local level
    26 octobre 2007

  227. Burkino Faso and Mali next on Peer Review list
    26 octobre 2007

  228. NEPAD TV schedule
    26 octobre 2007

  229. Calendar of events - NEPAD Agenda
    26 octobre 2007

  230. Implementing Africa’s science and technology plan of action : report spells out the details
    2 novembre 2007

  231. Calendar of events
    2 novembre 2007

  232. NEPAD signs MOU with submarine cable company
    2 novembre 2007

  233. US-Africa Summit will take broad look at investment opportunities and challenges
    5 novembre 2007

  234. NEPAD Gender Task Force recommends changes in APRM reporting
    8 novembre 2007

  235. China to work with NEPAD and African partners on aquaculture research
    8 novembre 2007

  236. NEPAD Calendar of events
    12 novembre 2007

  237. Strong support for small business training for SADC countries
    16 novembre 2007

  238. NEPAD Calendar of events
    19 novembre 2007

  239. Progress in raising funds for NEPAD’s Africa agriculture programme
    23 novembre 2007

  240. "Important milestone" in advancing the Peer Review process in Africa
    23 novembre 2007

  241. NEPAD Calendar of events
    26 novembre 2007

  242. NEPAD TV schedule
    30 novembre 2007

  243. NEPAD Nigeria busy on wide range of projects and programmes
    30 novembre 2007

  244. Connect Africa launched to boost ICT projects backed by $55-billion
    30 novembre 2007

  245. Central Africa ready for scaling-up rice and cassava production
    10 décembre 2007

  246. NEPAD-Spanish fund for the empowerment of women calls for proposals
    7 décembre 2007

  247. NEPAD Calendar of events
    10 décembre 2007

  248. International support for top-level conference on budgeting in Africa
    14 décembre 2007

  249. NEPAD Calendar of events
    17 décembre 2007

  250. NEPAD : a look at seven years of achievement – and the challenges on the way forward
    25 janvier 2008

  251. NEPAD Calendar of events
    25 janvier 2008

  252. NEPAD Calendar of events
    1er février 2008

  253. Private sector spells out support for African Union
    1er février 2008

  254. BRAINCHILD OF NEPAD BUSINESS FOUNDATION
    8 février 2008

  255. NEPAD TV schedule
    8 février 2008

  256. Japan to host TICAD IV in May 2008, the G8 Summit in July 2008 and the 10th APF on 7-8 April 2008
    9 février 2008

  257. NEPAD : Vacancy for gender consultant
    17 février 2008

  258. Update on the African Fertilizer Summit and the way ahead for the Green Revolution
    15 février 2008

  259. Success of the NEPAD programme and its contribution to Africa
    22 février 2008

  260. NEPAD Calendar of events
    22 février 2008

  261. NEPAD TV schedule
    3 mars 2008

  262. NEPAD-Spanish Women’s Fund
    3 mars 2008

  263. NEPAD TV schedule
    7 mars 2008

  264. Uganda completes the final stages of its Peer Review
    7 mars 2008

  265. NEPAD-Spanish Fund : Progress
    14 mars 2008

  266. NEPAD Calendar of events
    14 mars 2008

  267. NEPAD Calendar of events
    20 mars 2008

  268. International media summit on the re-branding of Africa
    20 mars 2008

  269. NEPAD-Spanish Fund : progress with interviews
    29 mars 2008

  270. African Bank chief puts top priority on water access and sanitation
    29 mars 2008

  271. Soaring food prices pose serious threat to food and nutrition security
    29 mars 2008

  272. Important role for Africa’s media in the development of the continent
    4 avril 2008

  273. NEPAD “training the trainer” seminar
    4 avril 2008

  274. NEPAD TV schedule
    11 avril 2008

  275. NEPAD Calendar of events
    11 avril 2008

  276. NEPAD Calendar of events
    21 avril 2008

  277. Soaring food prices stress urgency of increasing fertilizer use by African farmers
    21 avril 2008

  278. NEPAD e-Schools praised as the key to bridging the digital divide in Africa
    25 avril 2008

  279. NEPAD Calendar of events
    25 avril 2008

  280. Regional training workshop on science and technology
    6 mai 2008

  281. NEPAD Calendar of events
    6 mai 2008

  282. NEPAD looks at African agriculture for answers to crisis problems of high food prices
    16 mai 2008

  283. NEPAD conference shows the way to promote tourism in Africa
    16 mai 2008

  284. Africa Day - 25 May, 2008 : Message from the AU and NEPAD
    23 mai 2008

  285. Strengthening the links between Canada, NEPAD and the AU
    23 mai 2008

  286. NEPAD TV schedule
    30 mai 2008

  287. NEPAD Calendar of events
    30 mai 2008

  288. African Ministers to discuss NEPAD Environment Plan
    6 juin 2008

  289. "Green Revolution" aims to double Africa’s rice production in next 10 years
    6 juin 2008

  290. Historic moment” : first meeting to integrate NEPAD into AU
    13 juin 2008

  291. Donors increase financial support for NEPAD infrastructure facility
    27 juin 2008

  292. Chairman outlines reforms to boost performance of the AU Commission
    4 juillet 2008

  293. NEPAD Secretariat and AfDB discuss closer collaboration
    11 juillet 2008

  294. NEPAD’s CAADP is key in Africa’s response to high food prices
    18 juillet 2008

  295. NEPAD Calendar of events
    28 juillet 2008

  296. Helping African countries achieve their development objectives through CDSF
    1er août 2008

  297. Aid - who accounts to whom and on whose terms ?
    15 septembre 2008

  298. Work starts on NEPAD submarine cable to be ready for FIFA 2010
    20 septembre 2008

  299. New President of South Africa takes over from Thabo Mbeki
    29 septembre 2008

  300. AU chief calls for more CAADP financing and fast-tracking
    10 octobre 2008

  301. As daily life improves at the grassroots NEPAD is there
    11 octobre 2008

  302. Africa’s partners must not renege on development support, says UN General Assembly chief
    18 octobre 2008

  303. UN underlines commitment to AU-NEPAD priority programmes
    25 octobre 2008

  304. EAC, SADC,COMESA to merge into African Economic Community
    2 novembre 2008

  305. Boost for fisheries governance and trade through NEPAD-led Pan-African partnership
    10 novembre 2008

  306. Key role for African media to focus on agriculture and CAADP
    14 novembre 2008

  307. Africa, G8 and OECD identify actions to keep Africa on growth track despite global downturn
    21 novembre 2008

  308. Nigeria investing $85-million to boost local rice production
    28 novembre 2008

  309. President Museveni promises investors free land in Uganda
    12 décembre 2008

  310. NEPAD : Dr. Ibrahim Assane Mayaki, former Prime Minister of Niger, now NEPAD CEO, takes office
    21 avril 2009

  311. Gaddafi spells out his vision for NEPAD
    13 mai 2009

  312. Dr. Ibrahim Assane Mayaki leads NEPAD delegation to APF
    4 juin 2009

  313. African Ministers renew their commitments to CAADP
    27 juin 2009

  314. AU/NEPAD integration on track for finalization by July 2009
    7 juillet 2009

  315. A new African Civil Society network to promote SLM
    28 juillet 2009

  316. Togo signs CAADP Compact
    31 juillet 2009

  317. Mayaki calls on Ghana to align country’s priorities with NEPAD’s capacity development framework
    11 août 2009

  318. Addis Ababa : High-level session of Africa Partnership Forum (APF)
    27 août 2009

  319. NEPAD kick-starts project aimed at improving businesses that are run by women
    20 septembre 2009

  320. NEPAD zeroes in on Skills Development
    15 septembre 2009

  321. NEPAD : Global Financial Institutions must be Democratized, South Africa says at UN debate
    23 septembre 2009

  322. NEPAD’s biosafety receives boost from the Gates Foundation
    15 octobre 2009

  323. NEPAD : “Our Focus is on implementation “ , says Mayaki
    19 octobre 2009

  324. The NEPAD Transport Summit & Africa Expo
    28 octobre 2009

  325. Le 3eme Forum UE-Afrique soutient l’initiative des e-Ecoles
    15 octobre 2009

  326. NEPAD’s biosafety receives boost from the Gates Foundation
    15 octobre 2009

  327. Liberia signs CAADP Compact
    16 octobre 2009

  328. Africa-wide Conference to Discuss Strategies to Boost Agricultural Development
    23 novembre 2009

  329. NEPAD - Transport Summit in South Africa
    24 novembre 2009

  330. African leaders strengthen NEPAD – as it transforms into an implementing Agency
    3 février 2010

  331. Action plan to boost African countries’ progress in pharmaceutical innovation
    22 février 2010

  332. Commission for Social Development, Concluding Session, Adopts Text On Social Dimensions of NEPAD
    11 mars 2010

  333. NEPAD : Uganda signs Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) Compact
    31 mars 2010

  334. Kampala : Ouverture sous haute sécurité du XVe sommet de l’UA
    25 juillet 2010

  335. Dure fin de sommet de l’Union africaine à Kampala
    3 août 2010

  336. The NEPAD Transport Infrastructure Summit, 13-15 October, 2010 Johannesburg (South Africa)
    12 juillet 2010

  337. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development is 10 years old - NEPAD at the Crossroads
    9 mars 2011

  338. Union africaine : Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma : un nouveau départ ?
    21 mai 2013

  339. 3rd EU- Africa Business Forum Supports the e-Schools Initiative
    15 octobre 2009