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1. The Prime Minister of India, His Excellency Dr Manmohan Singh, the President of Brazil, His Excellency Mr Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the President of South Africa, His Excellency Mr Thabo Mbeki (thereafter referred as "the leaders") met in Tshwane, South Africa, on 17 October 2007, for the second Summit of the India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum. 2. The leaders recognised that since its inception in 2003, the IBSA Dialogue Forum provided a strong framework for trilateral co-operation in several key sectoral areas amongst IBSA partners. They noted that IBSA also provides them an important instrument for co-operation on regional and international issues and promoting the interests of the developing countries, thus contributing to the strengthening and deepening of South-South co-operation.
3. The leaders adopted the outcome of the fourth Ministerial Commission held in New Delhi on 17 July 2007.
4. The leaders recommitted themselves to vigorously pursue the deepening of South-South co-operation for sustainable development. They reaffirmed their shared commitment to the eradication of poverty through sustained and inclusive economic growth. They highlighted the importance of implementing the principles adopted in the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, particularly the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and emphasised that capacity and institution building is a key to global sustainable development.
5. The leaders acknowledged with appreciation the continued participation by academia and business leaders. The leaders are satisfied that the participation by civil society contributed to the enhancing the visibility of IBSA. They also applauded the commitment by the peoples of the three countries to participate at the Music and Dance Festival in Brazil later in October 2007.
6. The leaders welcomed and applauded the coming together of parliamentarians from India, Brazil and South Africa and the fruitful talks they had as an important contribution to people to people relations and strengthening of the IBSA Dialogue.
7. The leaders welcomed and fully supported the launch of the Women’s Forum which strengthens participation of women in IBSA and recognised the fundamental contribution of women in the social, cultural and economic development of India, Brazil and South Africa. They reaffirmed their commitment to the promotion of gender equality and women’s rights.
8. The leaders reiterated the importance of strengthening the global governance system as it forms a critical ingredient for promoting peace, security and sustainable socio-economic development. They reaffirmed their abiding commitment and faith in multilateralism, with the United Nations playing the pre-eminent role.
They reiterated that the international system cannot be reordered meaningfully without a comprehensive reform of the United Nations. The leaders emphasised that the reform of the Security Council is central to this process to ensure that the UN system reflects contemporary realities. They expressed their full support for a genuine reform and expansion of the Security Council, in permanent and non-permanent categories of membership, with greater representation for developing countries in both.
They reiterated that inter-governmental negotiations on the issue of Security Council reform must commence forthwith. They agreed to further strengthen co-operation amongst their countries and with other member states interested in a genuine reform of the Security Council. They also reaffirmed the need for concerted efforts by member states towards revitalisation of the General Assembly.
9. The leaders emphasised their commitment to the goal of the complete elimination of nuclear weapons and expressed concern over the lack of progress in the realisation of this goal. They emphasised that nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation are mutually reinforcing processes requiring continuous, irreversible progress on both fronts, and reaffirmed, in this regard, that the objective of non-proliferation would be best served by the systematic and progressive elimination of nuclear weapons in a comprehensive, universal, non-discriminatory and verifiable manner.
They further emphasised the necessity to start negotiations on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time to eliminate nuclear weapons, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.
10. The leaders strongly emphasised the need for ensuring the supply of safe, sustainable and non-polluting sources of energy to meet the rising global demand for energy, particularly in developing countries. In this context, they agreed to explore approaches to co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy under appropriate International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) safeguards.
They further agreed that international civilian nuclear co-operation, under appropriate IAEA safeguards, amongst countries committed to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation objectives and could be enhanced through acceptable forward-looking approaches, consistent with their respective national and international obligations. They also reiterated the importance of ensuring that any multilateral decisions related to the nuclear fuel cycle do not undermine the inalienable right of States to pursue nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in conformity with their international legal obligations.
11. The leaders called for the international community to work together on Climate Change under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. They urged all developed countries to take more ambitious and quantifiable green house gas (GHG) emission reduction targets in the post 2012 period under the Kyoto Protocol.
Moreover they stressed the imperative of addressing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. This would also spur the Carbon market and significantly enhance the Clean Development Mechanism’s contribution to sustainable development, financial flows and transfer of clean technologies to developing countries. They urged that significant progress is needed in Bali in December 2007.
12. The leaders stressed the disproportionately high impact of Climate Change on developing countries with their greater vulnerability, inadequate means and limited capacities to adapt to its effects. They emphasised the importance for adequate, new and additional financing for the adaptation efforts of developing countries without diverting resources for development. There should be no foreclosure of opportunities for developing countries to secure the technological and financial resources required for adaptation through development.
13. The leaders urged an agreement on innovative modalities for the development, transfer and commercialisation of technologies, including clean coal technologies, at affordable costs to developing countries noting that rewards for innovators need to be balanced with common good for humankind. They also urged the international community to work in a collaborative manner for the development and deployment of renewables, biofuels and biomass and advanced clean technologies. In this connection they welcomed the work done by the International Forum on Biofuels and underlined the importance of the International Conference on Biofuels, to be held in 2008.
14. The leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the promotion and protection of human rights for all. They expressed their commitment towards developing the institutional framework of the Human Rights Council, including the Universal Periodic Review Mechanism, based on effective international co-operation. They reaffirmed their determination to work towards the operationalisation of the right to development.
15. The leaders reaffirmed that terrorism constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. They strongly condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purpose. They stressed that there can be no justification, whatsoever, for any acts of terrorism. They emphasised the need for concerted and co-operative action by the international community to realise the objectives of eradicating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. In this regard, they called for the early adoption of a Comprehensive Convention against International Terrorism. They emphasised that international co-operation in combating terrorism should be conducted in conformity with the principles of the UN Charter, relevant UN Resolutions and International Conventions and Human Rights.
16. The leaders noted the progress being made on the African continent towards the achievement of peace, security, stability and development. They reaffirmed their determination to support these efforts while noting the inextricable link between peace and security on the one hand, and development on the other. They commended the efforts of the African Union and noted the ongoing work to strengthen its structures.
17. The leaders reiterated their firm belief in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (Nepad) a key framework for socio-economic development in Africa. They acknowledged that the Pan-African Infrastructure Development Fund will, as it evolves, help accelerate Africa’s growth and development to meet the objectives as set out in the Nepad. In this regard, the IBSA partners agreed to associate with the development of the fund in accordance with their respective rules and regulations.
18. The leaders called upon all parties in the Sudan to recommit themselves to the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) to its spirit and letter, as it is the viable option to the resolution of the conflict in the Sudan. They urged all parties involved in the conflict in Darfur to participate in the forthcoming Darfur peace talks in Libya.
In the same vein they expressed their concern at the increasing violence in Darfur and in this respect ; call on all the parties in Darfur to exercise restraint. They call upon the international community to provide financial and material support for the deployment of the UN-AU Hybrid Force and the alleviation of the humanitarian situation in Darfur.
19. The leaders reflected on the situation in Zimbabwe and took note of the positive progress of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) initiative to promote a negotiated political solution in Zimbabwe between the Government of Zimbabwe and the opposition party, under the facilitation of President Thabo Mbeki. They reiterated the need for the international community to continue its support for the people of Zimbabwe in order to overcome the challenges they are facing.
20. The leaders reaffirmed their long-term commitment for a democratic, prosperous and stable Afghanistan. They reiterated that a coherent and united international effort, in its military, political and developmental aspects, to assist the Government of Afghanistan remained vital. They underlined their centrality of the regional aspect in the reconstruction and development process.
They strongly condemned the continued terrorist attacks by the Taliban on aid –workers, civilians, Afghan and international forces. The agreed that the international community needed to act resolutely and with determination, in co-ordination with the Government of Afghanistan, in facing the challenge of the resurgence of the Taliban and Al Qaeda.
21. The leaders reflected upon the Middle East Peace Process and looked forward to progress towards goals of the Arab and all other major ongoing peace initiatives, including elements of the Roadmap, by means of intensified and meaningful dialogue among Israel, Palestine and other countries resulting in the establishment of an independent, sovereign, viable and united state of Palestine, living side by side at peace with Israel, within recognized and well-defined borders.
22. The leaders, in recognition of the many commonalities in the three countries in the socio-economic areas, welcomed the preparation of an integrated IBSA Social Development Strategy which will build on the best practices of the three countries for serving as a blue print for South-South Co-operation.
23. The leaders noted that World Trade Organisation (WTO) Doha Round of trade negotiations is entering a critical stage. These negotiations are now in a genuine multilateral process, with draft modalities texts for agriculture and industrial goods that provide a good basis for negotiations. They reaffirmed their commitment to carry out negotiations towards an outcome that is fair and acceptable to all.
24. The leaders reiterated the importance of the development dimension of the Round and welcomed the strengthened engagement, solidarity, and co-operation among developing countries in that process.
25. The leaders underlined that agriculture remains the key to the conclusion of the Round. To truly deliver on the development benefits of the Round, they called for the removal of long-standing distortions and restrictions in international agricultural trade, such as subsidies and trade barriers that affect the agricultural exports of and domestic production in developing countries. They also asserted that developed countries must agree to substantial and effective cuts in the latter’s trade distorting support, with new disciplines that prevent box shifting and commit to real and new trade flows in agriculture. They underscored that meaningful and operable special and differential treatment, which includes development instruments of Special Products and the Special Safeguard Mechanism are vital to address the concerns of developing countries with subsistence and low-income farmers.
26. The leaders emphasised that any progress towards achieving the above goals is a development imperative and should not be linked with meeting the disproportionate demands by developed countries in the non-agricultural market access (Nama) and services negotiations.
27. The leaders asserted that developing countries have been constructive and willing to negotiate in all areas. They urged others to act with the same disposition.
28. The leaders recalled their commitment to making a contribution to market opening in the Doha Round in agriculture, Nama and services that will create new trade flows. They also committed to ensure that the process of the negotiations is not held hostage to "who goes first." They reaffirmed their conviction that all members must "move together" to arrive at a balanced and fair outcome of the negotiations.
29. The leaders stated that through constant dialogue, reciprocal flexibility, non-dogmatic approach and good faith efforts, full modalities in the agriculture and industrial goods negotiations could be achieved before the year-end, together with equivalent results in other areas. They reaffirmed their commitment to achieving such a positive outcome within this framework.
30. The leaders underscored the importance of incorporating the development dimension in international discussions concerning intellectual property. They reaffirmed that intellectual property is not an end in itself, but one of the instruments to encourage innovation for technological, industrial and economic and social development. They also recalled that it is fundamental to preserve policy spaces necessary for ensuring access to knowledge, promoting public goals in the fields of health and culture, and a sustainable environment. In this context, they welcomed the adoption of 45 recommendations of concrete actions regarding the "Development Agenda" by this year’s World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) General Assembly, as well as the establishment of the WIPO Permanent Committee on Development and Intellectual Property.
31. The leaders reaffirmed the need to reach a solution for the problem raised by the granting of intellectual property rights on biological resources and/or associated traditional knowledge, without due compliance with relevant provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity, such as the granting of erroneous patents or the registration of undue trademarks. In this regard, they recalled the presentation in the WTO of the proposal co-sponsored, among others, by the three IBSA countries to amend the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement by introducing a mandatory requirement for the disclosure of origin, prior informed consent and also fair and equitable benefit sharing of biological resources and/or associated traditional knowledge used in inventions for which applications for intellectual property rights are filed.
32. The leaders welcomed the ongoing discussion in the Inter-Governmental Working Group (IGWG) on Intellectual Property and Public Health of the World Health Organisation (WHO). They stated the important role of the WHO in the discussion of the impacts of intellectual property protection on public health and on the access to medicines.
33. The leaders agreed to work towards a trilateral initiative on co-operation in the field of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) concerning capacity building activities, human resource development and public awareness programmes.
34. The leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the envisaged India-Southern Common Market-South Africa Customs Union (India-Mercosur-SACU) Trilateral Free Trade Agreement (T-FTA), and welcomed the initial meeting amongst the representatives of SACU, Mercosur and India on a possible T-FTA during the exploratory discussions held in Pretoria on the 6th October 2007. They also noted with satisfaction that all sides agreed to continue discussions on the trilateral trade arrangement. They urged the need for sustained efforts to realise early an India-Mercosur-SACU FTA. In this regard, the leaders supported the proposal to hold a Trilateral Ministerial meeting in 2008. They also welcomed the significant progress made in Mercosur-SACU negotiations in Pretoria, on 8 to 9 October 2007, as well as the launching of the SACU-India negotiations in the meeting held in Pretoria on 5 to 6 October 2007. Mercosur-SACU, Mercosur-India and India-SACU negotiations laid the basis for achieving the goal of a T-FTA.
35. The leaders expressed the importance of regular interaction among businesspersons of the three countries, with government authorities playing a facilitating role in the process, for sharply enhancing the momentum of trade and investment with a view to fully utilising the large and growing opportunities in their markets. For the continued expansion of trade, investment and economic ties, the leaders encouraged the implementation of further initiatives amongst IBSA countries on standards, customs procedures, intellectual property rights, small and medium enterprise development, business-to-business linkages and participation in trade exhibitions.
36. The leaders underlined the need to provide a greater voice for and participation by developing countries in the Bretton Woods Institutions and expressed concern at the slow rate of progress that has been achieved so far. They acknowledged the role of the G20 as a key forum on global economic development and governance and looked forward to its contribution to accelerating governance reforms in the Bretton Woods Institutions.
37. The leaders expressed their concern that many developing countries are still far from achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). They expressed their determination to mobilize support in this regard, with the specific objective to intensify common efforts towards achieving the MDGs and other internationally agreed development goals embodied in the Monterrey Consensus.
They particularly stressed the need to address the problem of developing countries debt, increase the Official Development Assistance (ODA) flows and reduce the inequalities in the international trading system. They committed to close co-operation amongst IBSA partner countries while preparing for the "Financing for Development" Review conference that will take place in Doha, Qatar, in the second half of 2008. In this regard, they emphasised the importance of enhancing international efforts to develop innovative financial mechanisms to fight poverty and hunger.
38. The leaders reiterated the importance and uniqueness of the IBSA Fund Facility for South-South Co-operation for the benefit of other developing countries. They noted with satisfaction the South-South Partnership Award received by the Fund from the United Nations (UN). They also agreed for a more effective mechanism for the utilisation of the Fund.
39. The leaders underscored the importance of vibrant sectoral co-operation for providing a firm foundation of the IBSA Forum.
40. The leaders stressed the need for improved air and maritime connectivity among IBSA countries for expanding trade, investment and tourism. In this regard, they encouraged the concerned authorities to work towards achieving this important goal on a priority basis. They expressed the hope that by the time of the Third Summit in India, effective and innovative solutions would have been put in place to mitigate this problem.
41. The leaders called for the establishment of joint projects and collaboration for the increased usage of alternative sources of energy such as bio-fuels, synthetic fuels, wind and solar energy to help achieve the objective of energy security which can bring significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
42. The leaders expressed the need to promote and enhance co-operation among the IBSA partners in the information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure development, including for the Soccer World Cup being hosted by South Africa and the Commonwealth Games by India in 2010.
43. The leaders welcomed the progress made in the sector of Education with the identification of areas of co-operation. In pursuance of this, they encouraged holding of workshops and seminars, exchange of information and joint projects. They also welcomed avenues of co-operation among the diplomatic institutes of IBSA countries.
44. The leaders also called for an early implementation of the Action Plan in the sector of health and called upon the IBSA Health Ministers to meet within the next three months. Co-operation in this area is of particular importance and needs to be energised.
45. The leaders appreciated the initiative being taken with regard to formulation of joint projects in the sector of agriculture and expressed the need for their expeditious implementation, for the purpose of inclusive growth and benefits to farmers. They further expressed the need to explore co-operation in the field of food processing.
46. The leaders stressed the need to explore avenues of co-operation in the sector of defence for the common benefit of the three countries.
47. While underlining the importance of co-operation in the science and technology sector, they emphasised the need for immediate action to start implementation of joint research projects. They welcomed the creation of a seed fund of US$ 1 million in each country for collaborative activities.
48. The leaders welcomed the signing of Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) and Agreements on co-operation in areas of wind resources, health and medicines, culture, social issues, public administration, higher education and on customs and tax administration co-operation, which will help further deepen trilateral cooperation among IBSA partners.
49. The leaders supported the establishment of two additional Working Groups on "Human Settlement Development" and "Environment and Climate Change" to further enhance the scope of trilateral sectoral co-operation.
50. The leaders called for an intra-IBSA trade target of US$ 15 billion by 2010 and urged business and industry to be even more ambitious and exceed this target.
51. South Africa and Brazil welcomed the offer by India to host the third IBSA Summit in 2008.
52. The President of Brazil and the Prime Minister of India expressed their deep gratitude to the President and the people of South Africa for successfully convening the second IBSA Summit which represented a new milestone in the progressive development of IBSA. Source : Foreign Affairs, 17 October 2007